Animal life in The Netherlands is relegated by region according to vegetation. Seabirds and other sea life, such as mollusks, are found especially in the muddy Waddenzee area and in the extreme southwest. Migrating birds pass in huge numbers through the Netherlands or remain for a summer or winter stay. Species of waterbirds and marsh and pasture birds are numerous. Larger mammals, such as roe deer, red deer, foxes, and badgers, are mostly restricted to nature reserves. Some species, such as boars, beavers, fallow deer, mouflons, and muskrats, have been introduced locally or reintroduced. Some reptiles and amphibians are endangered. Numerous species of river fish and river lobsters have become scarce because of water pollution. There is a diversity of brackish and freshwater animals inhabiting the many lakes, canals, and drainage ditches, but the vulnerable species of the nutritionally deficient waters have become rare.

Nature reserves have been formed by governmental and private organizations. Well-known reserves include the Naardermeer of Amsterdam, the Hoge Veluwe National Park, and the Oostvaardersplassen in the centre of the country. Some endangered species are protected by law.

Black-tailed godwit looking with worm catchers - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Short eared owl in the meadows - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Black-tailed godwit on Dutch beach - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Retracted European viper - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Short-eared owl on a pole overlooking the fields - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Short-eared owl on a fence - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European viper in close up - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Black tailed godwit in the meadow - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher couple mating - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher couple arguing - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher flying out of the water after dive - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Couple of kingfishers on a branch - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher flying out of the water with fish - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher diving into the water - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten climbing in a tree - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten in the early evening light - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten passing a tree in the night - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Couple of European pine martens in a night scene - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten in its environment - Nature Stock Photo Agency
2 European pine martens searching the ground - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten sniffing on the ground - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten next to tree in the night - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten looking into the camera - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Ringing a barn owl chick - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Kingfisher underwater dive - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Barn owl in flight from behind in the night - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Barn owl flying with mouse in the beak - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European pine marten jumping in the air - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Group of Flamingos in the lake - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European bison looking back - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Soft focus tulip - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Roe deer during nightfall in the meadow - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Closeup of a juvenile fox - Nature Stock Photo Agency
Spoonbill sitting in a treetop - Nature Stock Photo Agency
European herring gull from below - Nature Stock Photo Agency
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